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    Miller, Britton B. Palmer, and Dylan B. Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network.

    We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 OCO-2 show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.

    Susan J. Cheng, Peter G. Hess, William R. Wieder, R. Quinn Thomas, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Julius Vira, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Per Gundersen, Ivan J.

    Nitrogen deposition and fertilizer can change how much carbon is stored in plants and soils. Understanding how much added nitrogen is recovered in plants or soils is critical to estimating the size of the future land carbon sink.

    We compared how nitrogen additions are recovered in modeled soil and plant stocks against data from long-term nitrogen addition experiments. We found that the model simulates recovery of added nitrogen into soils through a different process than found in the field.

    Vermeulen, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch. This paper demonstrates the benefits of using global models with high horizontal resolution to represent atmospheric CO 2 patterns associated with evolving weather.

    The modelling of CO 2 weather is crucial to interpret the variability from ground-based and satellite CO 2 observations, which can then be used to infer CO 2 fluxes in atmospheric inversions.

    The benefits of high resolution come from an improved representation of the topography, winds, tracer transport and CO 2 flux distribution.

    De Kauwe, Anthony P. Walker, Silvia Caldararu, David S. Ellsworth, and Belinda E. Here we used a simple analytical framework developed by Comins and McMurtrie to investigate how different model assumptions affected plant responses to elevated CO 2.

    This framework is useful in revealing both the consequences and the mechanisms through which different assumptions affect predictions.

    We therefore recommend the use of this framework to analyze the likely outcomes of new assumptions before introducing them to complex model structures.

    Richard K. Nair, Kendalynn A. We investigated how nutrient availability affects seasonal timing of root growth and death in a Spanish savanna, adapted to a long summer drought.

    We found that nitrogen N additions led to more root biomass but number of roots was higher with N and phosphorus together.

    These effects were strongly affected by the time of year. In autumn root growth occurred after leaf production. This has implications for how we understand biomass production and carbon uptake in these systems.

    The snow albedo reduction due to dust from arid regions alters the melting dynamics of the snowpack, resulting in earlier snowmelt.

    We estimate up to 38 days of anticipated snow disappearance for a season that was characterized by a strong dust deposition event.

    This process has a series of further impacts. For example, earlier snowmelts may alter the hydrological cycle in the Alps, induce higher sensitivity to late summer drought, and finally impact vegetation and animal phenology.

    Felix R. Providing timely information on greenhouse gas emissions to stakeholders at sub-national scale is an emerging challenge and understanding urban CO 2 levels is one key aspect.

    This study uses atmospheric observations of total column CO 2 and compares them to numerical simulations to investigate CO 2 levels in the Paris metropolitan area due to natural fluxes and anthropogenic emissions.

    Our measurements reveal the influence of locally added CO 2 , which our model is also able to predict.

    Vegetation CUE is a key measure of carbon transfer from the atmosphere to terrestrial biomass. This study modelled global CUE with published observations using random forest.

    CUE varied with ecosystem types and spatially decreased with latitude, challenging the previous conclusion that CUE was independent of environmental controls.

    Our results emphasize a better understanding of environmental controls on CUE to reduce uncertainties in prognostic land-process model simulations.

    Florent F. Malavelle, Jim M. Haywood, Lina M. Mercado, Gerd A. Diffuse light can increase the efficiency of vegetation photosynthesis. Diffuse light results from scattering by either clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere.

    During the dry season biomass burning BB on the edges of the Amazon rainforest contributes significantly to the aerosol burden over the entire region.

    We show that despite a modest effect of change in light conditions, the overall impact of BB aerosols on the vegetation is still important when indirect climate feedbacks are considered.

    Global forest resources are accounted for to establish their potential to sink carbon in woody biomass.

    Climate prediction models realize the effects of future global forest utilization rates, defined by population demand and its evolution over time.

    However, forest management approaches consider the supply side to realize a sustainable forest carbon stock and adapt the harvest rates to novel climate conditions.

    This study simulates such an adaptive sustained yield approach. Trumbore, Norbert Kunert, Mariah S. Carbone, Päivi Yuval, S. This finding strengthens the recognition that CO 2 efflux from tree stems is not an accurate measure of respiration.

    We suggest the examination of refixation of respired CO 2 as a possible mechanism for CO 2 retention. Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Kort, Prabir K. We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO 2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO 2 from aircraft measurements.

    We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.

    Weather, humans, and vegetation control the occurrence of fires. In this study we find that global fire—vegetation models underestimate the strong increase of burned area with higher previous-season plant productivity in comparison to satellite-derived relationships.

    Christopher W. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E.

    Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T.

    Roehl, Mahesh K. This paper provides an overview of a coordinated international experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses in how climate models treat snow.

    The models will be assessed at point locations using high-quality reference measurements and globally using satellite-derived datasets.

    How well climate models simulate snow-related processes is important because changing snow cover is an important part of the global climate system and provides an important freshwater resource for human use.

    Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S.

    Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F.

    Tubiello, Ingrid T. Walker, Andrew J. Haicheng Zhang, Daniel S. HyeJin Kim, Isabel M. Hill, Akiko Hirata, Andrew J.

    Hoskins, Jan H. Janse, Walter Jetz, Justin A. This paper lays out the protocol for the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Scenario-based Intercomparison of Models BES-SIM that projects the global impacts of land use and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services over the coming decades, compared to the 20th century.

    BES-SIM uses harmonized scenarios and input data and a set of common output metrics at multiple scales, and identifies model uncertainties and research gaps.

    We compare several versions of a global atmospheric transport model for the simulation of CO 2. The representation of subgrid-scale processes modulates the interhemispheric gradient and the amplitude of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere.

    It has the largest impact over Brazil. Refining the horizontal resolution improves the simulation near emission hotspots or along the coastlines.

    The sensitivities to the land surface model and to the increase in vertical resolution are marginal. Northern forests enhanced their productivity during and before the Russian mega heatwave.

    We scrutinize this issue with a novel type of multivariate extreme event detection approach. The findings highlight the importance of forests in mitigating climate change, while not alleviating the consequences of extreme events for food security.

    Raised ozone levels impact plant stomatal opening and thus photosynthesis. Most models describe this as a suppression of stomata opening. Field evidence suggests more complexity, as ozone damage may make stomatal response sluggish.

    In some circumstances, this causes stomata to be more open — a concern during drought conditions — by increasing transpiration.

    To guide interpretation and modelling of field measurements, we present an equation for sluggish effects, via a single tau parameter.

    Net fluxes of carbon dioxide at the ecosystem level measured by eddy covariance are a main source for understanding biosphere—atmosphere interactions.

    However, there is a need for more usable and extensible tools for post-processing steps of the half-hourly flux data.

    Therefore, we developed the REddyProc package, providing data filtering, gap filling, and flux partitioning. The extensible functions are compatible with state-of-the-art tools but allow easier integration in extended analysis.

    Anthony P. Medlyn, Alistair Rogers, and Shawn P. Large uncertainty is inherent in model predictions due to imperfect knowledge of how to describe the processes that a model is intended to represent.

    Yet methods to quantify and evaluate this model hypothesis uncertainty are limited. To address this, the multi-assumption architecture and testbed MAAT automates the generation of all possible models by combining multiple representations of multiple processes.

    MAAT provides a formal framework for quantification of model hypothesis uncertainty. The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport.

    This paper presents the first results of an age of air AoA inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced.

    Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis. Briggs, William Woodgate, Cathy M.

    Trudinger, Josep G. Canadell, and Matthias Cuntz. CABLE is a terrestrial biosphere model that can be applied stand-alone and provides for land surface—atmosphere exchange within a climate model.

    We extend CABLE for regional and global carbon—climate simulations, accounting for land use and land cover change mediated by tree demography.

    A novel algorithm to simulate the coordination of rate-limiting photosynthetic processes is also implemented. Simulations satisfy multiple observational constraints on the global land carbon cycle.

    We further discuss their terrestrial mechanisms. This study explores the relative contributions of tree demographic, canopy structure and hydraulic processes on the Amazonian carbon and water cycles using large-scale process-based model.

    Our results imply that explicit coupling of the water and carbon cycles improves the representation of biogeochemical cycles and their spatial variability.

    Representing the variation in the ecological functioning of Amazonia should be the next step to improve the performance and predictive ability of models.

    Rebecca J. Oliver, Lina M. Potential gains in terrestrial carbon sequestration over Europe from elevated CO 2 can be partially offset by concurrent rises in tropospheric O 3.

    Large regional variations exist with larger impacts identified for temperate compared to boreal regions. Plant O 3 damage was greatest over the twentieth century and declined into the future.

    Anna B. Harper, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Peter M. Cox, Pierre Friedlingstein, Chris D. Jones, Lina M. Dynamic global vegetation models are used for studying historical and future changes to vegetation and the terrestrial carbon cycle.

    We compared simulated gross and net primary productivity of vegetation, vegetation distribution, and aspects of the transient carbon cycle to observational datasets.

    JULES was able to accurately reproduce many aspects of the terrestrial carbon cycle with the recent improvements. Changing the vegetation cover of the Earth's surface can alter the local energy balance, which can result in a local warming or cooling depending on the specific vegetation transition, its timing and location, as well as on the background climate.

    While models can theoretically simulate these effects, their skill is not well documented across space and time.

    Here we provide a dedicated framework to evaluate such models against measurements derived from satellite observations.

    We added new PFTs, did new parameterizations of photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and phenology based on a compilation of field measurements, and added a specific harvest module.

    Nabel, Julia Pongratz, Lena R. Collaboration between modelers and site investigators needs to be strengthened to improve the specific processes in ecosystem models in following studies.

    Janssens, Jennifer L. Sourish Basu, David F. Patra, Junjie Liu, and John B. CO 2 measurements from the global surface network and CO 2 estimates from satellites such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 OCO-2 are currently used to quantify the surface sources and sinks of CO 2 , using what we know about atmospheric transport of gases.

    AirCore is an innovative tool that passively samples air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent. The active AirCore system opens up a wide variety of opportunities, e.

    In this paper we investigate how the CO 2 exchange between the land vegetation and the atmosphere varies from year to year.

    We quantify the relation between variations in the CO 2 exchange and variations in air temperature. For this quantification, we use long-term measurements of CO 2 in the air at many locations, a simulation code for the transport of carbon dioxide through the atmosphere, and a data set of air temperature.

    The results help us to understand the mechanisms of CO 2 exchange. The estimate of monthly emission budgets is largely improved in high emitting regions.

    The results are sensitive to the observation network and the prior uncertainty. Using a high-resolution transport model and a systematic evaluation of the uncertainty in current emission inventories should improve the potential to retrieve FFCO 2 emissions.

    Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C.

    Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Houghton, Christopher W. Monteiro, David R. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu.

    The Global Carbon Budget describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties.

    It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal. Gerard Spain, and Christophe Ampe. Urbanized and industrialized areas are the largest source of fossil CO 2.

    This work analyses the atmospheric CO 2 variability observed from the first in situ network deployed in the Paris megacity area.

    Gradients of several ppm are found between the rural, peri-urban and urban sites at the diurnal to the seasonal scales.

    Wind direction and speed as well as boundary layer dynamics, correlated to highly variable urban emissions, are shown to be key regulator factors of the observed CO 2 records.

    Koch, and Martin Heimann. Using a dynamic vegetation model, we demonstrate that fire occurrence is the main determinant factor of vegetation changes along the Amazon—Cerrado border, followed by nutrient limitation and interannual climate variability.

    The accurate representation of the transition is important for understanding the savannization of the Amazon. This study assesses the potential of space-borne imagery of CO 2 atmospheric concentrations for monitoring the emissions from the Paris area.

    Such imagery could be provided by European and American missions in the next decade. It highlights the difficulty to improve current knowledge on CO 2 emissions for urban areas with CO 2 observations from satellites, and calls for more technological innovations in the remote sensing of CO 2 and in the models that exploit it.

    Ivar R. Miller, Michiel K. Tans, Bruce H. Vaughn, James W. White, Kevin Schaefer, and Wouter Peters. This study highlights the importance of improving the representation of the biosphere in carbon—climate models, in particular in a world where droughts become more extreme and more frequent.

    Improved projections of future Arctic and boreal ecosystem transformation require improved land surface models that integrate processes specific to these cold biomes.

    These describe the interactions between soil carbon, soil temperature and hydrology, and their resulting feedbacks on water and CO 2 fluxes, in addition to a recently developed fire module.

    We quantified in detail the P budgets in agricultural systems and PUE on global, regional, and national scales from to Globally, half of the total P inputs into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils, with the rest lost to bodies of water.

    There are great differences in P budgets and PUE in agricultural systems on global, regional, and national scales. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution and P in fertilizer and food among countries.

    The year appeared as a paradox regarding how global carbon cycle has responded to climate variation: it is the greenest year since according to satellite observation, but the atmospheric CO 2 growth rate is also the highest since Liu, Julia E.

    We used several observation-based biomass datasets to constrain the historical land-use change carbon emissions simulated by models.

    Our approach can also be applied to evaluate the LULCC impact of land-based climate mitigation policies. Sterk, Arjan Hensen, and Wouter Peters.

    In this research we examined the use of different models to simulate CO 2 concentrations in and around urban areas. We find that in the presence of large stack emissions in a gridded model is insufficient to represent the small dimensions of the CO 2 plumes.

    A plume model improves this representation up to 10—14 km from the stack. Better model results can improve the estimate of CO 2 emissions from urban areas and assist in identifying efficient emission reduction policies.

    Andreas Krause, Thomas A. Pugh, Anita D. Bayer, Jonathan C. Many climate change mitigation scenarios require negative emissions from land management.

    However, environmental side effects are often not considered. Here, we use projections of future land use from two land-use models as input to a vegetation model.

    We show that carbon removal via bioenergy production or forest maintenance and expansion affect a range of ecosystem functions.

    Largest impacts are found for crop production, nitrogen losses, and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds. Hutley, Gabriel Abramowitz, Martin G.

    This paper attempts to review some of the current challenges faced by the modelling community in simulating the behaviour of savanna ecosystems.

    We provide a particular focus on three dynamic processes phenology, root-water access, and fire that are characteristic of savannas, which we believe are not adequately represented in current-generation terrestrial biosphere models.

    We highlight reasons for these misrepresentations, possible solutions and a future direction for research in this area. Daniel S. The model is able to reproduce the observed shift from nitrogen to phosphorus limited net primary productivity along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii, as well as the contrasting responses of net primary productivity to nutrient addition.

    However, the simulated nutrient use efficiencies are lower, as observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass.

    Calibration of terrestrial ecosystem models TEMs is important but challenging. This study applies an advanced sampling technique for parameter estimation of a TEM.

    The results improve the model fit and predictive performance. We investigate the likelihood of ecological in situ networks to detect and monitor the impact of extreme events in the terrestrial biosphere.

    Consistencies and discrepancies in the temporal and spatial patterns and in the climatic and physiological controls of the inter-annual variability were investigated for the three data sources.

    Anomalies and extremes are often detected using univariate peak-over-threshold approaches in the geoscience community. The Earth system is highly multivariate.

    We compare eight multivariate anomaly detection algorithms and combinations of data preprocessing. We identify three anomaly detection algorithms that outperform univariate extreme event detection approaches.

    The workflows have the potential to reveal novelties in data. Remarks on their application to real Earth observations are provided.

    Ingrid T. Masarie, Maarten C. Krol, and Wouter Peters. We present and document CTDAS and demonstrate its ability to estimate global carbon sources and sinks.

    We present the latest CTE results including the distribution of the carbon sinks over the hemispheres and between the land biosphere and the oceans.

    The use of inverse modeling for quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases is increasing. Estimates are very difficult to evaluate objectively, however, due to limited atmospheric observations and the lack of direct emissions measurements at compatible scales.

    Diagnostic tools have been proposed to partially circumvent these limitations. This paper presents the first systematic review of the scope and applicability of these tools for atmospheric inversions of long-lived greenhouse gases.

    Top-down estimates of mineral dust flux usually rely on a single observational dataset whose observational errors propagate onto the emission estimates.

    Aerosol optical depth from five satellites are assimilated one by one into a source inversion system over northern Africa.

    We find a relatively large dispersion in flux estimates among the five experiments, which can likely be attributed to differences in the assimilated observational datasets and their associated error statistics.

    The present study 1 evaluates land—atmosphere coupling in the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble against an ensemble of benchmarking datasets and 2 refines the model ensemble using a land—atmosphere coupling diagnostic as constraint.

    Our study demonstrates that a considerable fraction of coupled climate models overemphasize warm-season moisture-limited climate regimes in midlatitude regions.

    This leads to biases in daily-scale temperature extremes, which are alleviated in a constrained ensemble.

    Land-use change is still overly simplistically implemented in global ecosystem and climate models. We identify and discuss three major challenges at the interface of land-use and climate modeling and propose ways for how to improve land-use representation in climate models.

    We conclude that land-use data-provider and user communities need to engage in the joint development and evaluation of enhanced land-use datasets to improve the quantification of land use—climate interactions and feedback.

    Goll, Alexander J. The response of soil organic carbon decomposition to warming and the interactions between nitrogen and carbon cycling affect the feedbacks between the land carbon cycle and the climate.

    In the model JSBACH carbon—nitrogen interactions have only a small effect on the feedbacks, whereas modifications of soil organic carbon decomposition have a large effect.

    The carbon cycle in the improved model is more resilient to climatic changes than in previous version of the model.

    The inverse modelling approach for estimating surface fluxes is based on transport models that have an imperfect representation of atmospheric processes like vertical mixing.

    In this paper, we show how assimilating commercial aircraft-based vertical profiles of CO 2 into inverse models can help reduce error due to the transport model, thus providing more accurate estimates of surface fluxes.

    Further, the reduction in flux uncertainty due to aircraft profiles from the IAGOS project is quantified. Modelling seasonal cycle at the coniferous forests poses a challenge.

    It was used to study the seasonality of the carbon cycle in the Fenno-Scandinavian region. SIF proved to be a better proxy for photosynthesis than the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation.

    The model estimates are sensitive to inputs and setups, but according to sensitivity tests the study suggests that the increase in atmospheric methane concentrations during 21st century was due to an increase in emissions from the 35S-EQ latitudinal bands.

    CO inverse modelling studies have so far reported significant discrepancies between model concentrations optimised with the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere MOPITT satellite retrievals and surface in-situ measurements.

    Rabin, Joe R. Ward, Chao Yue, Vivek K. Kelley, I. Global vegetation models are important tools for understanding how the Earth system will change in the future, and fire is a critical process to include.

    A number of different methods have been developed to represent vegetation burning. This paper describes the protocol for the first systematic comparison of global fire models, which will allow the community to explore various drivers and evaluate what mechanisms are important for improving performance.

    It also includes equations for all models. Surface ozone harms vegetation, which can influence not only climate but also ozone air quality itself.

    We implement a scheme for ozone damage on vegetation into an Earth system model, so that for the first time simulated vegetation and ozone can coevolve in a fully coupled simulation.

    Reduced dry deposition and enhanced isoprene emission contribute to most of these increases. Bayer, Mats Lindeskog, Thomas A.

    Pugh, Peter M. Anthoni, Richard Fuchs, and Almut Arneth. We evaluate the effects of land-use and land-cover changes on carbon pools and fluxes using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    Different historical reconstructions yielded an uncertainty of ca. Accounting for the parallel expansion and abandonment of croplands on a sub-grid level tropical shifting cultivation substantially increased the effect of land use on carbon stocks and fluxes compared to only accounting for net effects.

    Otto, and Markus Reichstein. The paper re-investigates the question whether observed precipitation extremes and annual totals have been increasing in the world's dry regions over the last 60 years.

    Despite recently postulated increasing trends, we demonstrate that large uncertainties prevail due to 1 the choice of dryness definition and 2 statistical data processing.

    In fact, we find only minor and only some significant increases if 1 dryness is based on aridity and 2 statistical artefacts are accounted for. Earth's terrestrial surface influences climate by exchanging carbon and water with the atmosphere through stomatal pores.

    However, most land-surface models, used to predict global carbon and water fluxes, estimate that water lost through stomata is less than what observations show.

    In this study, we integrate plant water loss data from species into a global land surface model, finding that global estimates of plant water loss increase, soil moisture decreases, and carbon gain also decreases.

    Michalak, and Prabir Patra. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of inverse modeling methods, developed over the years, for estimating the global sources and sinks of the greenhouse gas methane from atmospheric measurements.

    It provides insight into how techniques and estimates have evolved over time, what the remaining shortcomings are, new developments, and promising future directions.

    We propose a new approach to estimate urban emission ratios that takes advantage of the enhanced local urban signal in the atmosphere at low wind speed.

    We apply it to estimate monthly ratios between CO 2 , CO and some VOCs from atmospheric measurement datasets acquired in the centre of Paris between and We find that this approach is little sensitive to the regional background level definition.

    With this new method, we may reveal spatial and seasonal variability in the ratios in Paris. Semi-arid ecosystems in Australia are responsible for a significant part of the variability in global atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Here we use Australian observations to estimate parameters in a land surface model of carbon and water cycles. We quantify the variability in Australian carbon fluxes between and , including the large uptake in associated with exceptionally wet conditions following a prolonged drought.

    We estimate the effect of parameter uncertainty on these estimates. Andrew, Josep G. Peters, Andrew C. Manning, Thomas A. Tans, Richard A.

    Houghton, Ralph F. Keeling, Simone Alin, Oliver D. Stocker, Adrienne J. The Global Carbon Budget is the 11th annual update of emissions of carbon dioxide CO 2 and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean.

    This data synthesis brings together measurements, statistical information, and analyses of model results in order to provide an assessment of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties for years to , with a projection for year Evans, Anne Griebel, Lindsay B.

    Prober, and Richard Silberstein. Temperature extremes are expected to become more prevalent in the future and understanding ecosystem response is crucial.

    We synthesised measurements and model results to investigate the effect of a summer heat wave on carbon and water exchange across three biogeographic regions in southern Australia.

    Forests proved relatively resilient to short-term heat extremes but the response of woodlands indicates that the carbon sinks of large areas of Australia may not be sustainable in a future climate.

    Jason Beringer, Lindsay B. Arndt, David Campbell, Helen A. Phillips, Suzanne M. We describe the evolution, design, and status as well as an overview of data processing.

    We suggest that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing Australian ecosystems.

    Sylvia S. Nyawira, Julia E. We introduce an approach applicable to dynamic global vegetation models for evaluating simulated soil carbon changes from land-use changes against meta-analyses.

    The approach makes use of the large spatial coverage of the observations, and accounts for different ages of the sampled land-use transitions.

    The evaluation offers an opportunity for identifying causes of model—data discrepancies. Model projections of the response of the terrestrial biosphere to anthropogenic emissions are uncertain, in part due to unknown fixed parameters in a model.

    Data assimilation can address this by using observations to optimise these parameter values. Using multiple types of data is beneficial for constraining different model processes, but it can also pose challenges in a DA context.

    This paper demonstrates and discusses the issues involved using toy models and examples from existing literature. The study describes a carbon cycle data assimilation system that uses satellite observations of vegetation activity, net ecosystem exchange of carbon and water at many sites and atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in order to optimize the parameters of the ORCHIDEE land surface model.

    The optimized model is able to fit all three data streams leading to a land carbon uptake similar to independent estimates, which opens new perspectives for better prediction of the land carbon balance.

    Here we examine the relative importance of these factors in multiple models. Our results highlight models can show similar results in some benchmarks with different underlying regional dynamics.

    CABLE is a global land surface model, which has been used extensively in offline and coupled simulations. Our results suggest that global annual evapotranspiration increased on average by 7.

    This change was driven primarily by moisture limitation in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly Africa and Australia.

    In these regions, microwave satellite observations indicate that soil moisture decreased from to Hence, increasing soil-moisture limitations on evapotranspiration largely explain the recent decline of the global land-evapotranspiration trend.

    Whether the changing behaviour of evapotranspiration is representative of natural climate variability or reflects a more permanent reorganization of the land water cycle is a key question for earth system science.

    Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

    Skip to main content. UC Irvine. Email Facebook Twitter. Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply.

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    Last edited on 10 December , at Frank Griebe. Frank Griebe born 28 August is a German cinematographer.. Griebe was born in Hamburg.

    He is most popular for his work with German director Tom Tykwer. He also worked with Sönke Wortmann on Deutschland.

    Michael W. Grebe is an American philanthropist, lawyer, businessman and conservative activist. He is the former Chairman of the Philanthropy Roundtable.

    Oz Griebel. Griebel is a former teacher and coach at Worcester Academy. Griebel sat on the corporate boards of MacDermid, Inc.

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    SГјnke Griebel Video

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